Armanen Fuþarkh


Valeria, age 17, 1880 in Poland

Madame Valeria Grzegorzewska became a dedicated scholar within the Theosophical movement shortly after the death of her husband in 1895. Prior to the loss of her husband, she was a humble mother of four children that was steeped in the Native Faith Heathen traditions of “Old Europe,” a devout practitioner of the “Old Folk Ways,” and modest about her devotion to the “Old Gods & Goddesses.” She and her family had immigrated from Eastern Europe to New York city in 1892, and eventually joined the New York Chapter of the Theosophical Society. Her extensive knowledge of the ancient Hun-Magyar Rovas (cognate with Runes) drew the attention of, and eventually collaboration with Meister Guido Von List, who was himself associated with the European Theosophical movements. Grzegorzewska agreed with Von List’s theory that the Runes were originally part of an ancient Semiotic language, eventually forming increasingly Complex Sigils (similar to Hieroglyphs or Sinograms). However, She also understood that within the Armanen Fuþarkh, each individual Rune was a Primal & Foundational symbol that represented Primal & Foundational Concepts and therefore meaning could only be drawn from Primal & Foundational  words & language as found in Proto Indo-European.  Grzegorzewska and Von List agreed that the original Semiotic Sigils evolved from the same archaic symbols found throughout Eastern Europe belonging to what are contemporarily known as the Danube Cultures, which flourished more than 5000-years-ago. Madame Grzegorzewska integrated several of the Rovas into the Armanen Fuþarkh along with her fundamental understandings of their esoteric meaning to formulate what is modernly known as the Grzegorzewska Armanen Rune-Set. This Advanced Rune-Set is presented explicitly herein: this includes the depictions of the Eighteen individual Rune-characters, the related eighteen stanzas from the “Rúnatáls-tháttr Ódhins”, as well as the vital Etymologies for the ancient Proto Indo-European root-word implications Madame Grzegorzewska wisely assigned to each Rune…

Helena Blavatsky sends her "Good Wishes" to the Aryan Theosophical Society of New York, where Valeria Grzegorzewska was an active member and Rune Scholar.

 “The first promises to help helpfully in the struggle and in misery and in every difficulty.”

Fee (n.)

Middle English, representing the merger or mutual influence of two words, one from Old English, one from an Old French form of the same Germanic word, and both ultimately from a PIE root meaning "cattle." The Old English word is feoh "livestock, cattle; movable property; possessions in livestock, goods, or money; riches, treasure, wealth; money as a medium of exchange or payment," from Proto-Germanic *fehu (source also of Old Saxon fehu, Old High German fihu, German Vieh "cattle," Gothic faihu "money, fortune"). This is from PIE *peku- "cattle" (source also of Sanskrit pasu, Lithuanian pekus "cattle;" Latin pecu "cattle," pecunia "money, property"). The other word is Anglo-French fee, from Old French fieu, a variant of fief "possession, holding, domain; feudal duties, payment" (see fief), which apparently is a Germanic compound in which the first element is cognate with Old English feoh. Through Anglo-French come the legal senses "estate in land or tenements held on condition of feudal homage; land, property, possession" (c. 1300). Hence fee-simple (late 14th-Century) "absolute ownership," as opposed to fee-tail (early 15th-Century) "entailed ownership," inheritance limited to some particular class of heirs (the second element from Old French taillir "to cut, to limit"). The feudal sense was extended from landholdings to inheritable offices of service to a feudal lord (late 14th-Century; in Anglo-French late 13th-Century), for example forester of fe "a forester by heritable right." As these often were offices of profit, the word came to be used for "remuneration for service in office" (late 14th-Century), hence, "payment for (any kind of) work or services" (late 14th-Century). From late 14th-Century as "a sum paid for a privilege" (originally admission to a guild); early 15th-Century as "money payment or charge exacted for a license, etc."

“I learned another, which people use who want to be healers.”

Ur (n.)

prefix meaning "original, earliest, primitive," from German ur- "out of, original," from Proto-Germanic *uz- "out," from PIE *ud- "up, out" (see out (adv.)) Of, or pertaining to the Three Norns, and concepts of Örlog, Fate, and Cosmic Order. Initial usage only in words borrowed from German (such as ursprache "primordial, primitive language"); since mid-20th-Century a living prefix in English. Compare also Urschleim under protoplasm and Urquell under Pilsner. From the same source as Greek hyrke "earthen vessel"; (adverb) expressing motion or direction from within or from a central point, also removal from proper place or position, Old English ut "out, without, outside," from Proto-Germanic *ūt- (Old Norse, Old Frisian, Old Saxon, Gothic ut, Middle Dutch uut, Dutch uit, Old High German uz, German aus), from PIE root *uidh- "up, out, up away, on high" (source also of Sanskrit ut "up, out," uttarah "higher, upper, later, northern;" Avestan uz- "up, out," Old Irish ud- "out," Latin usque "all the way to, continuously, without interruption," Greek hysteros "the latter," Russian vy- "out"). Sense of "to a full end, completely, to a conclusion or finish" is from c. 1300. Meaning "so as to be no longer burning or alight; into darkness" is from c. 1400. Of position or situation, "beyond the bounds of, not within," early 15th-Century Meaning "into public notice" is from 1540s; that of "away from one's place of residence," c1600. The political sense of "not in office, removed or ejected from a position" is from c. 1600. Meaning "come into sight, become visible" (of stars, etc.) is by 1610s. As a preposition, "out of; from, away from; outside of, beyond; except; without, lacking;" mid-13th-Century, from the adverb.

“A third I know, which is good to me as a fetter for my enemies. I dull the swords of my opponents; neither weapon nor defense will help him.”

Þor (n.)

Odin's eldest son, strongest of the gods though not the wisest, c.1020, from Old Norse Þorr, literally "thunder," from *þunroz, related to Old English þunor (see thunder (n.)). His weapon was the hammer mjölnir ("crusher"). Þursday (n.) is the fifth day of the week, Old English þurresdæg, a contraction (perhaps influenced by Old Norse þorsdagr) of þunresdæg, literally "Thor's day," from Þunre, genitive of Þunor "Thor" (see thunder (n.)); from Proto-Germanic *thonaras daga (source also of Old Frisian thunresdei, Middle Dutch donresdach, Dutch donderdag, Old High German Donares tag, German Donnerstag, Danish and Swedish Torsdag "Thursday"), a loan-translation of Latin Jovis dies "day of Jupiter." Roman Jupiter was identified with the Germanic Thor. The Latin word is the source of Italian giovedi, Old French juesdi, French jeudi, Spanish jueves, and is itself a loan-translation of Greek dios hēmera "the day of Zeus."  Thunder (n.) mid-13th-Century, from Old English þunor "thunder, thunderclap; the god Thor," from Proto-Germanic *thunraz (source also of Old Norse þorr, Old Frisian thuner, Middle Dutch donre, Dutch donder, Old High German donar, German Donner "thunder"), from PIE *(s)tene- "to resound, thunder" (source also of Sanskrit tanayitnuh "thundering," Persian tundar "thunder," Latin tonare "to thunder"). Swedish tordön is literally "Thor's din." The unetymological -d- also is found in Dutch and Icelandic versions of the word. 

“A fourth still I know, when someone throws my arms and legs into fetters: as soon as I sing it, I can go forth, from my feet fall the fetters the hasp falls from my hands.”

*Ag- (v.)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to drive, draw out or forth, move." It is the source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek agein "to lead, guide, drive, carry off," agon "assembly, contest in the games," agōgos "leader," axios "worth, worthy, weighing as much;" Sanskrit ajati "drives," ajirah "moving, active;" Latin actus "a doing; a driving, impulse, a setting in motion; a part in a play;" agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward," hence "to do, perform," agilis "nimble, quick;" Old Norse aka "to drive;" Middle Irish ag "battle."  Air (n.2) from French air "look, appearance, mien, bearing, tone" (Old French aire "reality, essence, nature, descent, extraction" (12th-Century);  Latin ager "place, field, productive land"; *agro- Proto-Indo-European root meaning "field;" probably a derivative of root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move." It is the source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit ajras "plain, open country," Greek agros "field," Latin ager (genitive agri) "a field," Gothic akrs, Old English æcer "field." on notion of "place of origin." But some French sources connect this Old French word with the source of air (n.1), and it also is possible these senses in English developed from or were influenced by air (n.1); compare sense development of atmosphere and Latin spiritus "breath, breeze," also "high spirit, pride," and the extended senses of anima.

“A seventh I know, if I see a fire high around the housing of men, I will bring it to rest, with taming magical songs”

Hail (interj.)

salutation in greeting, c. 1200, from Old Norse heill "health, prosperity, good luck," or a similar Scandinavian source, and in part from Old English shortening of wæs hæil "be healthy" (see health; and compare wassail). The interj. hail is thus an abbreviated sentence expressing a wish, 'be whole,' i.e., be in good health, and equiv. to Latin salve, plural salvete, or ave, plural aveteHail (v.1) "to greet or address with 'hail!'" also "to drink toasts," c. 1200, heilen; to call to from a distance," 1560s (in this sense originally nautical), from hail (interj.). Related: Hailed; hailing. Hail fellow well met is from 1580s as a descriptive adjective, from a familiar greeting; hail fellow (adj.) "overly familiar" is from 1570s. Health (n.) Old English hælþ "wholeness, a being whole, sound or well," from Proto-Germanic *hailitho, from PIE *kailo- "whole, uninjured, of good omen" (source also of Old English hal "hale, whole;" Old Norse heill "healthy;" Old English halig, Old Norse helge "holy, sacred;" Old English hælan "to heal"). With Proto-Germanic abstract noun suffix *-itho (see -th (2)). Of physical health in Middle English, but also "prosperity, happiness, welfare; preservation, safety." An abstract noun to whole, not to heal. Meaning "a salutation" (in a toast, etc.) wishing one welfare or prosperity is from 1590s. Health food is from 1848. Wassail mid-12th-Century, from Old Norse ves heill "be healthy," a salutation, from ves, imperative of vesa "to be" (see was) + heill "healthy," from Proto-Germanic *haila- (see health). Use as a drinking phrase appears to have arisen among Danes in England and spread to native inhabitants. A similar formation appears in Old English wes þu hal, but this is not recorded as a drinking salutation. Sense extended c. 1300 to "liquor in which healths were drunk," especially spiced ale used in Yule celebrations. Meaning "a carousal, reveling" first attested c. 1600. Wassailing "custom of going caroling house to house at Yule time" is recorded from 1742.

“A fifth I heard, if from a happy flight a shot flies into the host; however swiftly it flies, I will force it to stop if I can only catch it with my gaze.”

Right (adj.1)

[correct, morally correct, direct] Old English riht, of actions, "just, good, fair, in conformity with moral law; proper, fitting, according to standard; rightful, legitimate, lawful; correct in belief, orthodox;" of persons or their characters, "disposed to do what is good or just;" also literal, "straight, not bent; direct, being the shortest course; erect," from Proto-Germanic *rehtan (source also of Old Frisian riucht "right," Old Saxon reht, Middle Dutch and Dutch recht, Old High German reht, German recht, Old Norse rettr, Gothic raihts), from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," also "to rule, to lead straight, to put right" (source also of Greek orektos "stretched out, upright;" Latin rectus "straight, right;" Old Persian rasta- "straight; right," aršta- "rectitude;" Old Irish recht "law;" Welsh rhaith, Breton reiz "just, righteous, wise"). Right (verb) Old English rihtan "to straighten (a path); rule, set up, set right, amend; guide, govern; restore, replace," from riht (adj.); see right (adj.1). Compare Old Norse retta "to straighten," Old Saxon rihtian, Old Frisian riuchta, German richten, Gothic garaihtjan.  From late 14th-Century as "avenge or redress" (a wrong or injury). The meaning "bring (a ship) back to an upright position" is by 1745; the sense of "recover one's balance or footing" is by 1805. The meaning "restore (something) to proper position after a fall, etc." is by 1823. Related: Righted; righting. Right (n.) Old English riht (West Saxon, Kentish), reht (Anglian), "that which is morally right, duty, obligation," also "rule of conduct; law of a land;" also "what someone deserves; a just claim, what is due, equitable treatment;" also "correctness, truth;" also "a legal entitlement (to possession of property, etc.), a privilege," from Proto-Germanic *rehtan (see right (adj.1)). In Middle English often contrasted to right or wrong. From early 14th-Century as "a right action, a good deed," hence the right "that which is just or true, righteousness." Right (adv.) Old English rehte, rihte "in a straight or direct manner; in a right manner, justly; precisely, exactly" (as in right now); "according to rule; according to fact or truth, correctly," from right (adj.1). Compare Old Saxon rehto, Old Frisian riuchte, Middle Dutch richte, German recht, adverbs from the adjectives. Lithuanian teisus "right, true," literally "straight." Greek dikaios "just" (in the moral and legal sense) is from dike "custom."  The sense in right whale (by 1733) is said to be "justly entitled to the name" (a sense that goes back to Old English); earliest sources for the term, in New England whaling publications, list it first among whales and compare the others to it. Of persons who are socially acceptable and potentially influential (the right people) by 1842; the sense of "correct method, what is most conducive to the end in vision" is by 1560s. The sense in one's right mind is of "mentally normal or sound" (1660s). Right (adj.2) "opposite of left," early 12th-Century, riht, from Old English riht, which did not have this sense but meant "good, proper, fitting, straight" (see right (adj.1)). It is a specialized development of the adjective that apparently began in late Old English on the notion of the right hand as normally the stronger of the two, or perhaps the "correct," hand. By c.1200 this was extended to that side of the body, then to its limbs, clothing, etc., and then transferred to other objects; from Old High German reht, which meant only "straight, just." Compare Latin rectus "straight; right," also from the same PIE root.

The political sense of "conservative" is recorded by 1794 (adj.), 1825 (n.), a translation of French Droit "the Right, Conservative Party" in the French National Assembly (1789; see left (adj.)).  The meaning "the right hand or right side" (as opposed to the left) is from mid-13th-Century; see right (adj.2) for sense development. As "the right wing of an army" by 1707. Political use is from 1825. Meaning "a blow with the right fist" is from 1898. The phrase to rights "at once, straightway" is 1660s, from an earlier meaning "in a proper manner" (Middle English). To do or something in one's own right (1610s) is from the legal use for "title or claim to something possessed by one or more" (12th-Century).  

“A sixth is mine, if a man hurts me with the root of a strange tree; the ruin he threatened me with does not hurt me but consumes him.”

Ken (v.)

"to know, understand, take cognizance of," a word surviving mainly in Scottish and northern England dialect, from Middle English kennen, "make known; give instruction to; be aware, know, have knowledge of, know how to; recognize by sight; see, catch sight of," a very common verb, from Old English cennan "make known, declare, acknowledge" (in late Old English also "to know"), originally "cause to know, make to know," causative of cunnan "to become acquainted with, to know." Cognate with German kennen, Danish kjende, Swedish känna.  1550s, "cognizance, intellectual view;" 1580s in a physical sense, "range of sight;" from ken (v.), in the second sense perhaps via kenning (n.2) in the same sense in nautical use; both from PIE root *gno- "to know." Related: Kenned; kenning.

“An eighth I have, surely for all most needful to use: wherever discord grows among heroes, since I know how to settle it quickly.”

Need (n.)

Middle English nede, from Old English nied (West Saxon), ned (Mercian) "what is required, wanted, or desired; necessity, compulsion, the constraint of unavoidable circumstances; duty; hardship, emergency, trouble, time of peril or distress; errand, business," originally "violence, force," from Proto-Germanic *nauthiz/*naudiz (source also of Old Saxon nod, Old Norse nauðr "distress, emergency, need," Old Frisian ned, "force, violence; danger, anxiety, fear; need," Middle Dutch, Dutch nood "need, want, distress, peril," Old High German not, German Not "need, distress, necessity, hardship," Gothic nauþs "need"). This is apparently from a root *nauti- "death, to be exhausted," source also of Old English ne, neo, Old Norse na, Gothic naus "corpse;" Old Irish naunae "famine, shortage," Old Cornish naun "corpse;" Old Church Slavonic navi "corpse," nazda, Russian nuzda, Polish nędza "misery, distress;" Old Prussian nowis "corpse," nautin "need, distress," nawe "death;" Lithuanian novyti "to torture, kill," nove "death." As it is attested only in Germanic, Celtic, and Balto-Slavic, it might be non-PIE, from a regional substrate language. From 12th-Century as "lack of something that is necessary or important; state or condition of needing something;" also "a necessary act, required work or duty." Meaning "extreme poverty, destitution, want of means of subsistence" is from early 14th-Century The more common Old English word for "need, necessity, want" was ðearf, but they were connected via a notion of "trouble, pain," and the two formed a compound, niedðearf "need, necessity, compulsion, thing needed." Nied also might have been influenced by Old English neod "desire, longing," which often was spelled the same. Nied was common in Old English compounds, such as niedfaru "compulsory journey," a euphemism for "death;" niedhæmed "rape" (the second element being an Old English word meaning "sexual intercourse");  niedling "slave."  Need (v.) Old English neodian "be necessary, be required (for some purpose)," intransitive; also transitive, "require, have need of," from the same root as need (n.). Meaning "to be under obligation (to do something)," especially in negative or interrogative sentences implying obligation or necessity, is from late 14th-Century Related: Needed; needing

“A ninth I grasp, when for me need arises to protect my ship on the ocean: then I will still the storm on the rising sea and calm the swell of the waves.”

Is (v.)

third person singular present indicative of be, Old English is, from Germanic stem *es- (source also of Old High German, German, Gothic ist, Old Norse es, er), from PIE *es-ti- (source also of Sanskrit asti, Greek esti, Latin est, Lithuanian esti, Old Church Slavonic jesti), third person singular form of root *es- "to be." Old English lost the final -t-.  Until 1500s, pronounced to rhyme with kiss. Dialectal use for all persons (I “is”) is in Chaucer. Phrase “it is what it is,” indicating resigned acceptance of an unpleasant but inevitable situation or circumstance about which nothing truly positive can be said. *es: Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to be." It originally forms all or part of these words: absence; absent; am; Bodhisattva; entity; essence; essential; essive; eu-; eucalyptus; Eucharist; Euclidean; Eudora; Eugene; eugenics; eulogy; Eunice; euphemism; euphoria; euthanasia; homoiousian; improve; interest; is; onto-; Parousia; Present (adj.) "existing at the time;" Present (n.2) "what is offered or given as a gift;" proud; quintessence; represent; satyagraha; sin; sooth; soothe; suttee; swastika;  It is the source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit asmi, Hittite eimi, Greek esti-, Latin est, Old Church Slavonic jesmi, Lithuanian esmi, Gothic imi, Old English eom, German ist.

“I use the tenth, when through the air Valkyries fly: when I begin that magic, they will fare confused in form and effort”

Öst/East (n.)

Old English east, eastan (adj., adv.) "east, easterly, eastward;" easte (n.), from Proto-Germanic *aust- "east," literally "toward the sunrise" (source also of Old Frisian ast "east," aster "eastward," Dutch oost Old Saxon ost, Old High German ostan, German Ost, Old Norse austr "from the east"); (verb) from PIE root *aus- (1) "to shine," especially of the dawn. The east is the direction in which dawn breaks… The Gestalt Goddess of the Eastern sun in Spring, Östare…

A thirteenth I name, I sprinkle the son of a noble prior to when he goes into battle [e.g., with a blot hlautein], he cannot fall, no sword may strike him to the ground.”

Bless (v.)

Old English bletsian, bledsian, Northumbrian bloedsian "to consecrate by a religious rite, make holy, give thanks," from Proto-Germanic *blodison "hallow with blood, mark with blood," from *blotham "blood" (see blood (n.)). Originally a blood sprinkling on pagan altars.

“A fourteenth I sing to the gathered folk by naming the divine names for all the Ase [Aesir] and Elven kind I know as well as any.”

Life (n.)

Old English life (dative lif) "animated corporeal existence; lifetime, period between birth and death; the history of an individual from birth to death, written account of a person's life; way of life (good or bad); condition of being a living thing, opposite of death; from Proto-Germanic *leiban (source also of Old Norse lif "life, body," Old Frisian, Old Saxon lif "life, person, body," Dutch lijf "body," Old High German lib "life," German Leib "body"), properly "continuance, perseverance," from PIE root *leip- "to stick, adhere." The noun associated with live (v.) "to live," which is literally "to continue, remain," "term of duration or existence." Sense of "vitality, energy in action, expression, etc." 

“An eleventh still I also know in the fight, when I lead the dear one: I sing it into the shield and he is victorious in battle he fares hale hither and hale home again he remains hale everywhere.”

Sieg/Victory (n.)

 c. 1300, "military supremacy, victory in battle or a physical contest," Lithuanian apveikiu, apveikti "to subdue, overcome;" Old Church Slavonic veku "strength, power, age;" Old Norse vigr "able in battle," Old English wigan "fight;" Welsh gwych "brave, energetic," Old Irish fichim "I fight," second element in Celtic Ordovices "those who fight with hammers."  Siege (n.) early 13th-Century, "a seat" (as in Siege Perilous, early 13th-Century, the vacant seat at Arthur's Round Table, according to prophecy to be occupied safely only by the knight destined to find the Holy Grail), from Old French sege "seat, throne," from Vulgar Latin *sedicum "seat," from Latin sedere "to sit," from PIE root *sed- (1) "to sit." The military sense is attested from c. 1300; the notion is of an army "sitting down" before a fortress.  Save (v.) c. 1200, saven, "to deliver from some danger; rescue from peril, bring to safety," also "prevent the death of;" also "to deliver from sin or its consequences; admit to eternal life; gain salvation," from Old French sauver "keep (safe), protect, redeem," from Late Latin salvare "make safe, secure," from Latin salvus "safe" (from PIE root *sol- "whole, well-kept").  From c. 1300 as "reserve for future use, hold back, store up instead of spending;" hence "keep possession of" (late 14th-Century). Earlier save (the) appearances, a term in philosophy that goes back to ancient Greek in reference to a theory which explains the observed facts. Sieg Heil (interj.) salute, German, literally "hail victory;" from German Sieg "victory," from Old High German sigu (see Siegfried) + heil "to hail," from Proto-Germanic *hailitho (see health). English heil was used in Middle English as a salutation implying respect or reverence (c. 1200; see hail (interj.)).

“A fifteenth I tell, which Folk-rast the dwarf sang before the Doors of Day to the Ases [Aesir] for strength, to the Elves for might, to myself to clear my mind.”

Movement (n.)

late 14th-Century, mevement, "change of position; passage from place to place," from Old French movement "movement, exercise; start, instigation" (Modern French mouvement), from Medieval Latin movimentum, from Latin movere "to move, set in motion" (from PIE root *meue- "to push away"). *Meue- *meuə-, Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to push away." It forms all or part of: commotion; emotion; mob; mobile; moment; momentary; momentous; momentum; motif; motility; motion; motive; moto-; motor; move; movement; mutiny; premotion; promote; remote; remove.  It is the source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit kama-muta "moved by love" and probably mivati "pushes, moves;" Greek ameusasthai "to surpass," amyno "push away;" Latin movere "move, set in motion;" Lithuanian mauti "push on."

“A twelfth I have: if on a tree there hangs a man throttled up on high; then I write some runes and the man climbs down and talks to me.”

Tiuw/Tyr & Ðeus/Day (n.)

Name given to third day of the week, Old English tiwesdæg, from Tiwes, genitive of Tiw "Tiu," from Proto-Germanic *Tiwaz "god of the sky," the original supreme deity of ancient Germanic mythology, differentiated specifically as Tiu, ancient Germanic god of war, AKA "the Sworn-God" and "God-of-Oaths", from PIE *deiwos "god," from root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god." Cognate with Old Frisian tiesdei, Old Norse tysdagr, Swedish tisdag, Old High German ziestag. The day name (second element dæg, see day) is a translation of Latin dies Martis (source of Italian martedi, French Mardi) "Day of Mars," from the Roman god of war, who was identified with Germanic Tiw (though etymologically Tiw is related to Zeus), itself a loan-translation of Greek Areos hēmera. In cognate German Dienstag and Dutch Dinsdag, the first element would appear to be Germanic ðing, þing "public assembly," but it is now thought to be from Thinxus, one of the names of the war-god in Latin inscriptions. *dyeu- Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god." It forms all or part of: adieu; adios; adjourn; Asmodeus; circadian; deific; deify; deism; deity; deodand; deus ex machina; deva; dial; diary; Diana; Dianthus; diet (n.2) "assembly;" Dioscuri; Dis; dismal; diurnal; diva; Dives; divine; joss; journal; journalist; journey; Jove; jovial; Julia; Julius; July; Jupiter; meridian; Midi; per diem; psychedelic; quotidian; sojourn; Tuesday; Zeus. It is the source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit deva "god" (literally "shining one"); diva "by day;" Avestan dava- "spirit, demon;" Greek delos "clear;" Latin dies "day," deus "god;" Welsh diw, Breton deiz "day;" Armenian tiw "day;" Lithuanian dievas "god," diena "day;" Old Church Slavonic dini, Polish dzień, Russian den "day;" Old Norse tivar "gods;" Old English Tig, genitive Tiwes, name of a god.  Day (n.) Old English dæg "period during which the sun is above the horizon," also "lifetime, definite time of existence," from Proto-Germanic *dages- "day" (source also of Old Saxon, Middle Dutch, Dutch dag, Old Frisian di, dei, Old High German tag, German Tag, Old Norse dagr, Gothic dags), according to Watkins, from PIE root *agh- "a day."  He adds that the Germanic initial d- is "of obscure origin." But some assert it is from PIE root *dhegh- "to burn" (see fever). Not considered to be related to Latin dies (which is from PIE root *dyeu- "to shine").  Meaning originally, in English, "the daylight hours;" The day formerly began at sunset; hence Old English Wodnesniht was what we would call "Tuesday night." 

“A sixteenth I speak to a coy maiden to get me goodness and luck: that changes and sums the wishes and mind of the swan-white armed beauty.”

Year (n.) 

Old English gear (West Saxon), ger (Anglian) "year," from Proto-Germanic *jēr "year" (source also of Old Saxon, Old High German jar, Old Norse ar, Danish aar, Old Frisian ger, Dutch jaar, German Jahr, Gothic jer "year"), from PIE *yer-o-, from root *yer- "year, season" (source also of Avestan yare (nominative singular) "year;" Greek hōra "year, season, any part of a year," also "any part of a day, hour;" Old Church Slavonic jaru, Bohemian jaro "spring;" Latin hornus "of this year;" Old Persian dušiyaram "famine," literally "bad year"). Probably originally "that which makes [a complete cycle]," and from verbal root *ei- meaning "to do, make."  Hour (n.) from Old French ore, hore "canonical hour; one-twelfth of a day" (sunrise to sunset), from Latin hora "an hour;" poetically "time of year, season," from Greek hōra a word used to indicate any limited time within a year, month, or day (from PIE *yor-a-, from root *yer- "year, season;" see year). English meaning "one of the 24 equal parts of a natural solar day (time from one sunrise to the next), equal hour; Yew (n.) evergreen tree of temperate Europe and Asia, Old English iw, eow "yew," from Proto-Germanic *iwo- (source also of Middle Dutch iwe, Dutch ijf, Old High German iwa, German Eibe, Old Norse yr), from PIE *ei-wo- (source also of Old Irish eo, Welsh ywen "yew"), perhaps a suffixed form of root *ei- (2) "reddish, motley, yellow."  OED says French if, Spanish iva, Medieval Latin ivus are from Germanic (and says Dutch ijf is from French); others posit a Gaulish ivos as the source of these. Lithuanian ieva likewise is said to be from PIE. The tree symbolizes both death and immortality, being poisonous as well as long-lived. Reference to its wood as well-suited to making bows. The h- has persisted in this word despite not being pronounced since Roman times. Replaced Old English tid, literally "time" (see tide (n.)) and stund "period of time, point of time," from Proto-Germanic Uhr, which is likewise is from PIE. 

“A seventeenth helps me with a lovely maid, so that she will never be able to leave me.”

*Ehe (n.)

The Germanic root represented by Old English æ "custom, law," Old High German ewa, German Ehe "marriage," sometimes is associated with this group, or it is traced to PIE *ei- "to go." *Yeug: Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to join"; related to coniugare "to join together" and conjure "to swear an oath together. Æ (1) digraph in certain Greek or Latin words; it developed in later Latin where classical Latin used separate letters. The Latin digraph also was used to transliterate Greek -ai- (as in aegis). When Latinate words flooded English in the 16th-Century it came with them, but as an etymological device only, and it was pronounced simply "e" and eventually reduced to that letter in writing (as in eon, Egypt) in most cases, excepting (until recently) proper names (Æsir, Cæsar, Æsop). When divided and representing two syllables (aerate, aerial) it sometimes is written .  Related word sounds:  ae, gyneco, paedagogy, paediatric, paediatrician, paediatrics. Æ (2) Anglo-Saxon alphabetic character representing a simple vowel corresponding to the short "a" in glad or the long one in dare, ultimately from Latin and used by scribes writing Old English because it represented roughly the same sound as Latin æ (see Æ (1)).

“The eighteenth I will eternally never tell to a woman or maid;  it forms the best end to the lays— which only One of All knows, except for the lady who embraces me in marriage or who is as a sister to me.”

Gift (n.)

mid-13th-Century "that which is given" (c. 1100 in surnames), from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse gift, gipt "gift; good luck," from Proto-Germanic *geftiz (source also of Old Saxon gift, Old Frisian jefte, Middle Dutch ghifte "gift," German Mitgift "dowry"), from *geb- "to give," from PIE root *ghabh- "to give or receive."( Not to be ambiguated with German Gift, Dutch, Danish, Swedish gift "poison," see poison (n.)).  Sense of "natural talent" (regarded as conferred) is from c. 1300, perhaps from earlier sense of "inspiration, power miraculously bestowed" (late 12th-Century), as in the gift of tongues. Old English cognate gift is recorded only in the sense "bride-price, marriage gift (by the groom), dowry" (hence gifta (pl.) "a marriage, nuptials"). The Old English noun for "a giving, gift" was giefu, which is related to the Old Norse word. Sense of "natural talent" is c. 1300, perhaps from earlier sense of "inspiration" (late 12th-Century). The proverbial gift horse was earlier given horse: No man ought to looke a geuen hors in the mouth. [Heywood, 1546].  The modern form perhaps traces to Butler's "Hudibras" (1663), where the tight iambic tetrameter required a shorter phrase:  He ne'er consider'd it, as loth, To look a Gift-horse in the mouth.